1. The chemical industry is profitable and extremely capital- intensive. In the entertainment, news, and music industries, there are low entry thresholds for digital business models with disruptive potential. That’s because the initial investments are often relatively affordable, and as production quantities increase the marginal costs of the production and digital marketing of texts, videos, and songs approach zero. By contrast, the scale-up costs are high in the chemical industry, and every increase of production requires additional capital.